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National Vector Borne Disease Control Program (NVBDCP)

 

National Vector Borne Disease Control Program  (NVBDCP) is the central nodal agency for the prevention and control of vector borne diseases i.e. Malaria, Dengue, Lymphatic Filariasis, Kala-azar, Japanese Encephalitis and Chikungunya in India. NVBDCP deals with following diseases:-

Malaria


Malaria is a potentially life threatening parasitic disease caused by  parasites known as Plasmodium viviax (P.vivax), Plasmodium falciparum (P.falciparum), Plasmodium malariae (P.malariae) and Plasmodium ovale (P.ovale)

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  • It is transmitted by the infective bite of Anopheles mosquito
  • Man develops disease after 10 to 14 days of being bitten by an infective mosquito
  • There are two types of parasites of human malaria, Plasmodium vivax, P. falciparum,
    which are commonly reported from India.
  • Inside the human host, the parasite undergoes a series of changes as part of
    its complex life cycle. (Plasmodium is a protozoan parasite)
  • The parasite completes life cycle in liver cells (pre-erythrocytic schizogony) and red
    blood cells (erythrocytic schizogony
  • Infection with P.falciparum is the most deadly form of malaria.

 

 

 

DENGUE
 

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  • Dengue is a viral disease
  • It is transmitted by the infective bite of Aedes Aegypti mosquito
  • Man develops disease after 5-6 days of being bitten by an infective mosquito
  • It occurs in two forms: Dengue Fever and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever(DHF)
  • Dengue Fever is a severe, flu-like illness
  • Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is a more severe form of disease, which may cause death
  • Person suspected of having dengue fever or DHF must see a doctor at once

 

   

    FILARIASIS

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Filariasis is caused by several round, coiled and thread-like parasitic

worms belonging to the family filaridea.These parasites aftergetting deposited

on skin penetrate on their own or through the opening created by mosquito

bites to reach the lymphatic system. The disease is caused by the nematode

 worm, either Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi and transmitted by

ubiquitous mosquito species Culex quinquefasciatusb and

Mansonia  annulifera/M.uniformis respectively. The disease manifests often in

 bizarre swelling of legs, and hydrocele and is the cause of a great deal of

social stigma. Filariasis is caused by several round, coiled and thread-like parasitic worms belonging to the family filaridea. These parasites after getting deposited on skin penetrate on their own or through the opening created by mosquito bites to reach the lymphatic system.

Brugian filariasis: Lymphadenitis (swollen and painful lymphnode) occurs episodically, most commonly affecting one inguinal lymph node at a time. The infection lasts for several days and usually heals spontaneously. The frequency of episodes may vary from 1-2 attacks per year to several attacks per month. Sometimes lymphadenitis is followed by a characteristic retrograde lymphangitis. The infection may spread to the surrounding tissues, and occasionally involves the whole thigh or entire limb. The infected lymph node may become an abscess, ulcerate, and heal with  fibrotic scarring. The acute clinical course with its complications may last from several weeks to 3 months. Characteristically, elephantiasis involves the leg below the knee but occasionally it affects the arm below the elbow. Genital lesions or chyluria (milky colour urine) do not occur in brugian filariasis.


Bancroftian filariasis: The lymphatic vessels of the male genitalia are most commonly affected in bancroftian filariasis, producing episodic funiculitis (inflammation of the spermatic cord), epididymitis and orchitis. Adenolymphangitis of the extremities is less common. Hydrocele is the most common sign of chronic bancroftian filariasis, followed by lymphoedema, elephantiasis and chyluria. The swelling involves the whole leg, the whole arm, the scrotum, the vulva or the breast. The fluid of hydrocele and chyluric patients may contain microfilariae, even when they are absent from the blood. Chyluria occurs intermittently and is more pronounced after a heavy meal. It is often symptomless, but some patients complain of fatigue and weight loss, resulting from loss of fat and protein.

 

 

 

Japanese Encephalitis
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  • Japanese Encephalitis is a viral disease
  • It is transmitted by infective bites of female mosquitoes mainly belonging to Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex vishnui and Culex pseudovishnui group. However, some other mosquito species also play a role in transmission under specific conditions
  • JE virus is primarily zoonotic in its natural cycle and man is an accidental host.
  • JE virus is neurotorpic and arbovirus and primarily affects central nervous system

 

 

 

Kala-azar
 

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  • Kala-azar is a slow progressing indigenous disease caused by a protozoan parasite of genus Leishmania
  • In India Leishmania donovani is the only parasite causing this disease
  • The parasite primarily infects reticuloendothelial system and may be found in abundance in bone marrow, spleen and liver.
  • Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a condition
  • when Leishmania donovani invades skin cells, resides and develops there and manifests as dermal leisions. Some of the kala-azar cases manifests PKDL after a few years of treatment. Recently it is believed that PKDL may appear without passing through visceral stage. However, adequate data is yet to be generated on course of PKDL manifestation

 

Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP)

Integrated Disease Surveillance Project (IDSP) was launched by Hon’ble Union Minister of Health & Family Welfare in November 2004. It is a decentralized, State based Surveillance Program in the country. It is intended to detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks and help initiate an effective response in a timely manner. Major components of the project are : (1) Integrating and decentralization of surveillance activities; (2) Strengthening of public health laboratories; (3) Human Resource Development – Training of State Surveillance Officers, District Surveillance Officers, Rapid Response Team, other medical and paramedical staff; and (4) Use of Information Technology for collection, collation, compilation, analysis and dissemination of data

For Project implementation, Surveillance Units have been set up at Central, State and District level. Surveillance Committees at National, State and District levels are monitoring the Project. Currently linkages are being established with all State Head Quarters, District Head Quarters and all Government Medical Colleges on a Satellite Broadband Hybrid Network. The network on completion will enable 800 sites on a broadband network of which 400 sites will have dual connectivity with satellite and broadband. This network enables enhanced Speedy Data Transfer, Video Conferencing, Discussions, Training, Communication and in future e-learning for outbreaks and program monitoring under IDSP. A 24X7 call center with toll free telephone no 1075 accessible from BSNL/MTNL telephone from all states is in operation since February 2008. This receives disease alerts from anywhere in the country and diverges the information to the respective State/District Surveillance Units for verification and initiating appropriate actions wherever required.

Under IDSP data is collected on a weekly (Monday–Sunday) basis. The information is collected on three specified reporting formats, namely “S” (suspected cases), “P” (presumptive cases) and “L” (Laboratory confirmed cases) filled by Health Workers, Clinician and Clinical Laboratory staff. The weekly data gives the time trends. Whenever there is a rising trend of illnesses in any area, it is investigated by the Medical Officers/Rapid Response Teams (RRT) to diagnose and control the outbreak. Data analysis and action are being undertaken by respective districts. Emphasis is being laid on reporting of surveillance data from major hospitals both in public and private sector and also Infectious Disease hospitals. The compilation and disease outbreak alerts has been started recently. On an average 10-15 outbreaks are reported every week to Central Surveillance Unit, IDSP.

 

 National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Programme

Iodine is an essential micronutrient with an average daily at 100-150 micrograms for normal human growth and development. Deficiency of Iodine can cause physical and mental retardation, cretinism, abortions, stillbirth, deaf mutism, squint & various types of goitre. Results of sample surveys conducted in 325 districts covering all the States/Union Territories have revealed that 263 districts are endemic where the prevalence of Iodine Deficiency Disorders is more than 10%. It is estimated that more than 71 million persons are suffering from goitre and other Iodine Deficiency Disorders.

The Government is implementing the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme(External website that opens in a new window) (NIDDCP) formerly known as National Goiter Control Programme (NGCP) since 1962 a 100% centrally assisted programme with a focus on the provision of Iodated salt, IDD survey/ resurvey, laboratory monitoring of Iodated salt and Urinary Iodine excretion, health education and publicity. The annual production of Iodated salt is about 52.00 lakh M.T. Government of India has banned the sale of non iodated salt in the entire country for direct human consumption under Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954 with effect from 17th May, 2006.

For effective implementation of the Programme at the State level, the Ministry of Health is providing financial assistance to all the States/UTs for establishment of an IDD Control Cell, and IDD Monitoring Laboratory in addition to assistance for conducting surveys and Health Education & Publicity for consumption of iodated salt by the population.

The Ministry of Health is also conducting information, education and communication.

 

 National Leprosy Eradication Program

Leprosy is a common diseases like other diseases and can be completely cured taking regular treatment. It is neither inherited nor the result of the past sins nor the curse of Gods. Considering it a social stigma and try to conceal the disease is nothing less than betraying oneself because delayed diagnosis and treatment can cause deformity and millions of leprosy patients suffering from visible deformity is a living evidence of this fact.

Objectives:

To achieve less than 1 case per 10,000 of population fixed by WHO and which

was to be achieved by 2000 A.D.

 

 

 National Programme for Control of Blindness

National Programme for Control of Blindness (NPCB) was launched in the year 1976 as a 100% Centrally Sponsored scheme with the goal to reduce the prevalence of blindness to 0.3% by 2020. Rapid Survey on Avoidable Blindness conducted under NPCB during 2006-07 showed reduction in the prevalence rate of blindness from 1.1% (2001-02) to 1% (2006-07).

The objectives of the programme are:

  • To reduce the backlog of blindness through identification and treatment of the blind;
  • To develop Comprehensive Eye Care facilities in every district;
  • To develop human resources for providing Eye Care Services;
  • To improve quality of service delivery;
  • To secure participation of Voluntary Organizations/Private Practitioners in eye Care.
  • To enhance community awareness on eye care.
 

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